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Front cover

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Presents the front cover for this issue of the publication.
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Cover 2

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Table of Contents

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Presents the table of contents for this issue of the publication.
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Keysight

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The President's Page

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Presents the President's message for this issue of the publication.
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Understanding telecommunications business (valdar, a. and morfett, i.; 2016) [book review]

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When an engineer thinks about the IT industry, a tendency to consider only the technical side of it is likely to appear. That is quite natural as successes in this area are obviously related to the innovation and exciting inventions that are presented throughout the pages of our magazine. However, as in the case of each industry, there are also other very important aspects, i.e., economic, legal, etc. Therefore, to be effective in practical IT, a network specialist needs not only to be expert in one’s own field; they also need to be aware of the general business context, since in many cases this is the source of inspiration or, on the other hand, problems influencing the every-day operation. This book authored by two distinguished practitioners will help with getting the required knowledge. The content is divided into 10 chapters, each of which is some 30-40 pages long. Hence, it is possible to get acquainted with a single piece of the presented material during an afternoon. While almost all of the presented notions are described in the context of IT issues, some of the chapters cover very general economic problems related to business operation: business strategy concepts; corporate finance and governance; customers and marketing; and people and organizational development. These general topics are intertwined with the chapters detailing specific aspects of the field interesting for us: regulation in telecommunications along with the recent emphasis on opening markets, economics of network design, and the management of networks and services. Although throughout the book the British perspective of the authors is seen, there are many examples covering European, American and (rarely) Asian markets. Anyway, globalization, so important for today’s big IT businesses, is tangible for the reader. The book can be recommended to students as a handbook, being a perfect supplement for the lectures on entrepreneurship o- practical project management courses that are typically a part of the curriculum for a future IT engineers. This is also a good summary of various aspects of networking from the organizational and global viewpoint, a perspective that might sometimes be lost when a student encounters various topics covered during different courses separately. On the other hand, the book will be useful for network specialists who would like to understand what are the basic categories of thinking for management or marketing staff. “
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Conference Calendar

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Presents the ComSoc society upcoming conference calendar.
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Global Communications Newsletter

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Presents key events and topics in the global communications industry.
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Fog Computing

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Internet of Things: Part 4

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The Internet of Things (IoT) is seen as a set of vertical application domains that share a limited number of common basic functionalities. In this view, consumer-centric solutions, platforms, data management, and business models have to be developed and consolidated in order to deploy effective solutions in the specific fields. The availability of low-cost general-purpose processing and storage systems with sensing/actuation capabilities coupled with communication capabilities are broadening the possibilities of IoT, leading to open systems that will be highly programmable and virtualized, and will support large numbers of application programming interfaces (APIs). IoT emerges as a set of integrated technologies and new exciting solutions and services that are set to change the way people live and produce goods. IoT is considered by many as a fruitful technological sector in order to generate revenues. IoT covers a large wealth of consumer-centric technologies and it is applicable to an even larger set of application domains. Innovation will be nurtured and driven by the possibilities offered by the combination of increased technological capabilities, new business models and the rise of new ecosystems. The articles in this section address several promising approaches to sensors, actuators, and new consumer devices.
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Internet-of-Things-Based Smart Cities: Recent Advances and Challenges

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The Internet of Things is a novel cutting edge technology that proffers to connect a plethora of digital devices endowed with several sensing, actuation, and computing capabilities with the Internet, thus offering manifold new services in the context of a smart city. The appealing IoT services and big data analytics are enabling smart city initiatives all over the world. These services are transforming cities by improving infrastructure and transportation systems, reducing traffic congestion, providing waste management, and improving the quality of human life. In this article, we devise a taxonomy to best bring forth a generic overview of the IoT paradigm for smart cities, integrated ICT, network types, possible opportunities and major requirements. Moreover, an overview of the up-to-date efforts from standard bodies is presented. Later, we give an overview of existing open source IoT platforms for realizing smart city applications followed by several exemplary case studies. In addition, we summarize the latest synergies and initiatives worldwide taken to promote IoT in the context of smart cities. Finally, we highlight several challenges in order to give future research directions.
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Comsoc Training

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IoT in Agriculture: Designing a Europe-Wide Large-Scale Pilot

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The technologies associated with the Internet of Things have great potential for application in the domain of food and agriculture, especially in view of the societal and environmental challenges faced by this sector. From farm to fork, IoT technologies could transform the sector, contributing to food safety, and the reduction of agricultural inputs and food waste. A major step toward greater uptake of these technologies will be the execution of IoT-based large-scale pilots (LSPs) in the entire supply chain. This article outlines the challenges and constraints that an LSP deployment of IoT in this domain must consider. Sectoral and technological challenges are described in order to identify a set of technological and agrifood requirements. An architecture based on a system of systems approach is briefly presented, the importance of addressing the interoperability challenges faced by this sector is highlighted, and we elaborate on requirements for new business models, security, privacy, and data governance. A description of the technologies and solutions involved in designing pilots for four agrifood domains (dairy, fruit, arable, meat and vegetable supply chain) is eventually provided. In conclusion, it is noted that for IoT to be successful in this domain, a significant change of culture is needed.
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Understanding the Limits of LoRaWAN

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Low-power wide area networking technology offers long-range communication, which enables new types of services. Several solutions exist; LoRaWAN is arguably the most adopted. It promises ubiquitous connectivity in outdoor IoT applications, while keeping network structures and management simple. This technology has received a lot of attention in recent months from network operators and solution providers. However, the technology has limitations that need to be clearly understood to avoid inflated expectations and disillusionment. This article provides an impartial and fair overview of the capabilities and limitations of LoRaWAN. We discuss those in the context of use cases, and list open research and development questions.
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Self-Organized Connected Objects: Rethinking QoS Provisioning for IoT Services

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The proliferation of connected objects has revolutionized the traditional Internet, giving rise to the emerging Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT ecosystem is very large, and it includes smart interconnections among sensors and devices with applications in both the industrial world and customers' daily lives. As a unified standard for IoT is still under development, many challenges related to IoT must be discussed and addressed, especially those related to energy efficiency. This article tackles the challenge of energy efficiency in IoT from a novel perspective. It shows that instead of maximizing the QoS, which is generally energy costly, better energy efficiency can be achieved by targeting satisfactory QoS levels only. The approach aims to enhance energy efficiency while ensuring a desired QoS threshold. This is supported by a game theoretical solution concept referred to as the satisfaction equilibrium. Moreover, as IoT objects require self-configuring techniques to maintain the network scalability and flexibility, this article introduces fully distributed schemes in order to reach efficient satisfaction equilibria in both slow- and fast-fading channel contexts. The proposed schemes can also be adapted to achieve the maximum performance of IoT applications that desire the highest QoS levels. The performance of these algorithms is illustrated through a smart home use case scenario.
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Uncoordinated Access Schemes for the IoT: Approaches, Regulations, and Performance

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Internet of Things devices communicate using a variety of protocols, differing in many aspects, with the channel access method being one of the most important. Most of the transmission technologies explicitly designed for IoT and machine-to-machine communication use either an ALOHA-based channel access or some type of Listen Before Talk strategy, based on carrier sensing. In this article, we provide a comparative overview of the uncoordinated channel access methods for Internet of Things technologies, namely ALOHA-based and Listen Before Talk schemes, in relation to the ETSI and FCC regulatory frameworks. Furthermore, we provide a performance comparison of these access schemes, in terms of both successful transmissions and energy efficiency, in a typical Internet of Things deployment. Results show that Listen Before Talk is effective in reducing inter-node interference even for long-range transmissions, although the energy efficiency can be lower than that provided by ALOHA methods. Furthermore, the adoption of rate adaptation schemes lowers the energy consumption while improving the fairness among nodes at different distances from the receiver. Coexistence issues are also investigated, showing that in massive deployments Listen Before Talk is severely affected by the presence of ALOHA devices in the same area.
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Massive Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for Cellular IoT: Potentials and Limitations

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The Internet of Things promises ubiquitous connectivity of everything everywhere, which represents the biggest technology trend in the years to come. It is expected that by 2020 over 25 billion devices will be connected to cellular networks; far beyond the number of devices in current wireless networks. Machine-to-machine communications aims to provide the communication infrastructure for enabling IoT by facilitating the billions of multi-role devices to communicate with each other and with the underlying data transport infrastructure without, or with little, human intervention. Providing this infrastructure will require a dramatic shift from the current protocols mostly designed for human-to-human applications. This article reviews recent 3GPP solutions for enabling massive cellular IoT and investigates the random access strategies for M2M communications, which shows that cellular networks must evolve to handle the new ways in which devices will connect and communicate with the system. A massive non-orthogonal multiple access technique is then presented as a promising solution to support a massive number of IoT devices in cellular networks, where we also identify its practical challenges and future research directions.
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Value of Information and Cost of Privacy in the Internet of Things

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Will the Internet of Things happen? Clearly, the hardware and software components comprising the Internet of Things are technologically feasible, but the sweeping adoption we envision might not take place. The success of technological innovations depends on the creation of a business model that both customers and providers perceive as beneficial. As the recently abandoned Google Glass project shows, privacy concerns can kill an otherwise technologically feasible product. On the other hand, the example of Twitter illustrates that very popular products might fail to make money. Both academic researchers and businesses are becoming increasingly aware that we need to reason about the economic and social implications of provided value and privacy in a rigorous, quantitative way. In this article we call these quantities value of information, which appears to both the service providers and the customers, and cost of privacy, which normally is only relevant to the customers. We describe the importance of assessing these values in the context of the Internet of Things, possible directions of their formalization, their relationships to other problems, and related areas as well as future directions of the field.
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Comsoc Membership

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Advances in Network Services Chain: Part 1

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Small and large enterprise networks suffer constant pressure updating infrastructure to ever changing trends, techniques, and requirements used in data processing. In a typical enterprise, a data flow arrives on one of its edge routers and then traverses a “service graph” within the enterprise network: it undergoes a series of operations involving Network Address Translation (NAT), access control lists (ACLs), and firewalls before reaching the ultimate destination. The future of enterprise networking is an open software-centric and user-centric approach. As such, enterprises will finally get back complete control over their data. This will be a rocky road, though. Large, globally operating service and content providers push their own data access and governance technologies and/or standards.
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