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Front Cover

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
Presents the front cover for this issue of the publication.
Categorías: research

Cover 2

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
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Table of Contents

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
Presents the table of contents for this issue of the publication.
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Editor's Note

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
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Comsoc Membership

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
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Scanning the Literature

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
Presents concise summaries of selected papers that are recently published in the field of networking. Each summary describes the paper's main idea, methodology, and technical contributions. The purpose of the column is to bring the state of the art of networking research to readers of IEEE Network. Authors are also welcome to recommend their recently published work to the column, and papers with novel ideas, solid work, and significant contributions to the field are especially appreciated. Authors wishing to have their papers presented in the column should contact the editor.
Categorías: research

Massive Machine-Type Communications

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
The articles in this special section address the techology and applications supported by machine-type communications (MTC). Here, MTC is characterized by fully automatic data generation, exchange, processing, and actuation among intelligent machines, without or with low intervention of humans. With the rapid penetration of embedded devices, MTC is becoming the dominant communication paradigm for a wide range of emerging smart services including healthcare, manufacturing, utilities, consumer goods, and transportation. Industry analysts predict that 50 billion devices will be connected to mobile networks worldwide by 2020. While mobile phone devices communicating among humans will still exist, machine-type devices sending bits of information to other machines, servers, clouds, or humans will account for a much larger proportion and thus create what is referred to as massive MTC (MMTC).
Categorías: research

Narrowband IoT Data Transmission Procedures for Massive Machine-Type Communications

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
Large-scale deployments of massive machine type communications involve several challenges on cellular networks. To address the challenges of massive machine-type communications, or more generally, the Internet of Things (IoT), the 3GPP has developed Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) as part of Release 13. NB-IoT is designed to provide better indoor coverage, support of a massive number of low-throughput devices, with relaxed delay requirements, and lower energy consumption. NB-IoT reuses Long Term Evolution functionality with simplifications and optimizations. Particularly for small data transmissions, NB-IoT specifies two procedures to reduce the required signaling: one of them based on the control plane and the other on the user plane (UP). In this work, we provide an overview of these procedures as well as an evaluation of their performance. The results of the energy consumption show both optimizations achieve a battery lifetime extension of more than two years for a large range in the considered cases, and up to eight years for CP with good coverage. In terms of cell capacity relative to Service Request, CP achieves gains from 26 to 224 percent, and UP ranges from 36 to 165 percent. The comparison of CP and UP optimizations yields similar results, except for some specific configurations.
Categorías: research

Overview of 3GPP Release 14 Enhanced NB-IoT

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
In 3GPP LTE Release 13, Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) was standardized for providing wide-area connectivity for massive machine-type communications for IoT. In LTE Release 14, NB-IoT was further developed to deliver enhanced user experience in selected areas through the addition of features such as increased positioning accuracy, increased peak data rates, the introduction of a lower device power class, improved non-anchor carrier operation, multicast, and authorization of coverage enhancements. In this article, we provide an overview of these features introduced for NB-IoT in LTE Release 14. An analysis is given on the applicability of these features and their benefits to enhance the NB-IoT radio access technology.
Categorías: research

IEEE Standards

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
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Locally and Temporary Shared Spectrum as Opportunity for Vertical Sectors in 5G

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
The fifth generation of cellular mobile communication networks is on the horizon and aims to integrate use cases of vertical sectors in its holistic ecosystem of technologies, frameworks, and paradigms. To integrate vertical sectors successfully, their key requirements should be communicated, properly discussed, and finally reflected within the design and standardization process of 5G technologies. In this contribution, we analyze the needs and communication requirements of selected vertical sectors - industrial automation, utilities, and program making and special events (PMSE) - which can be covered by a mixed use of massive machine-type communication (mMTC) and mission-critical communications (MCC), including ultra-reliable low latency communications. Based on this analysis, we discuss local high-quality wireless networks aiming at local, self-sustaining, private, and temporary deployment. Considering the current discussion on radio spectrum scarcity and exclusive radio spectrum rights, we suggest license-based spectrum sharing as the enabling spectrum access technology for such networks. In this respect, we propose three functional extensions of licensed shared access (LSA) architectures that may allow for locally confined and temporally flexible licensed shared spectrum arrangements. Furthermore, the adoption of our proposed architectures would enable vertical sectors to roll out private networks by themselves and meet their local demands.
Categorías: research

Data Aggregation and Packet Bundling of Uplink Small Packets for Monitoring Applications in LTE

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
In cellular massive machine-type communications, a device can transmit directly to the BS or through an aggregator (intermediate node). While direct device-BS communication has recently been the focus of 5G/3GPP research and standardization efforts, the use of aggregators remains a less explored topic. In this article we analyze the deployment scenarios in which aggregators can perform cellular access on behalf of multiple MTC devices. We study the effect of packet bundling at the aggregator, which alleviates overhead and resource waste when sending small packets. The aggregators give rise to a trade-off between access congestion and resource starvation, and we show that packet bundling can minimize resource starvation, especially for smaller numbers of aggregators. Under the limitations of the considered model, we investigate the optimal settings of the network parameters in terms of number of aggregators and packet bundle size. Our results show that, in general, data aggregation can benefit the uplink massive MTC in LTE by reducing the signaling overhead.
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IEEETV

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
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Pinpointing Anomaly RFID Tags: Situation and Opportunities

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
RFID is one of the most important automatic identification techniques in the future IoT world. Compared with the other techniques, RFID has various advantages such as no requirement of line of sight, the capability of wireless communication, low cost, small size, and so on. This article discusses two types of anomaly tags, i.e., missing tags and unknown tags, which usually appear due to theft or product misplacement. Generally, there are two categories of anomaly tag pinpointing protocols: boolean detection, which aims at probabilistically determining whether there exist anomaly tags or not; and exact identification, which aims at identifying all anomaly tag IDs. This article first conducts a comprehensive survey of the existing anomaly tag pinpointing protocols, particularly emphasizing their evolution road. After that, we also conduct a taxonomy of the existing protocols and summarize their pros and cons. Finally, we discuss some technical challenges and problems that have not been covered yet, and point out the potential opportunities in RFID research and applications.
Categorías: research

Green Femtocells in the IoT Era: Traffic Modeling and Challenges -- An Overview

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
The rapid increase in numbers of communicating devices, such as smartphones, PDAs, and notebooks, is causing the demand for mobile data traffic to grow significantly. In recent years, mobile operators have been trying to find solutions to increase the network capacity in order to satisfy mobile users' requests and meet the requirements in terms of various quality of service measures in the case of high mobile data traffic. With ever increasing demand from mobile users and implementations in the area of IoT, femtocells have proved to be a promising solution for network operators to enhance coverage and capacity, and they provide high data rate services in a less expensive manner. This article describes possible femtocell applications and traffic modeling approaches in the IoT environment, and highlights potentials and challenges for IoT-femtocell-based applications.
Categorías: research

Q-Charge: A Quadcopter-Based Wireless Charging Platform for Large-Scale Sensing Applications

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
Wireless charging technologies have attracted much attention from both academia and industry due to their great potential of freeing devices from wires and batteries, becoming one of the key research areas in recent years. Many platforms have been designed based on different charging technologies for a wide range of scenarios, including structural monitoring, habitat monitoring, wearable devices, volcano monitoring, and so on. However, these existing platforms cannot be deployed quickly and flexibly in many harsh environments, resulting in high deployment cost. In this article, we propose Q-Charge, a wireless charging platform integrated with a quadcopter, which is able to provide desirable energy for large-scale sensing applications. Q-Charge is composed of three components: an energy transfer module, a programmable quadcopter unit, and a cloud server. A wireless charger is installed on a quadcopter to achieve remote energy delivery, and a sink node retrieves data packets from sensors and forwards them to the cloud via a service gateway. Our platform has been successfully implemented for building structure and farmland monitoring, which demonstrates Q-Charge to be effective and efficient.
Categorías: research

Toward the Evolution of Wireless Powered Communication Networks for the Future Internet of Things

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
With the ever-increasing speed of technological advances, more and more objects are being connected to the Internet every day and the world is moving toward the next generation of the Internet, the so called Internet of Things (IoT). However, numerous challenges need to be addressed for the widespread adoption of the IoT paradigm. Energy scarcity is one of these challenges. Recently, the advent of energy harvesting has relaxed energy limitation concerns. Specifically, RF energy harvesting has attracted a large amount of research due to its clear advantages over other energy harvesting methods. Lately, the extensive research in the RF energy harvesting domain has led to the emergence of wireless powered communication networks (WPCNs), where energy-constrained users are powered by wireless energy transfer of an integrated energy and information access point referred to as a hybrid access point (HAP). In this article, we review the research conducted in the field of WPCN and discuss opportunities for further extensions of these networks. Looking from the IoT point of view, we also present some of the points that must be taken into account for impeccable operation of WPCN in the IoT environment.
Categorías: research

Interference Management in Ultra-Dense Networks: Challenges and Approaches

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
Capable of enhancing spatial multiplexing and greatly expanding network capacity, network densification has undoubtedly become a general trend in future wireless networks. However, in addition to the expected advantages, the overuse of spatial resources would result in unpredictable and overwhelming interference as well due to the limited spectrum resources and highly disorganized network infrastructures. Hence, a critical issue arises: are conventional IM techniques still applicable and effective to tackle the interference in UDN? To shed light on the problem, in this article we first investigate the characteristics of interference in UDN and then provide an overview of the existing dominant IM techniques. It is found that, due to the complicated interference, most IM techniques designed for sparse networks would lose their merits when applied in UDN. To reap their potential benefits, we design an IM entity for UDN, aided by which an adaptive on-off power control method is proposed. Results reveal that network capacity could be significantly improved using the proposed method, especially in UDN. In addition, open issues and challenges for IM co-design with stateof- the-art communications technologies are highlighted to provide insight on the potential direction in future wireless networks.
Categorías: research

Efficient Management and Fast Handovers in Software Defined Wireless Networks Using UAVs

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
Compared to traditional networking, SDN has better controllability and visibility for network components, which enable better management by using the common controller. In this article, the standard architecture of SDN is enhanced to utilize UAVs as on-demand forwarding switches. The proposed approach can achieve efficient management and fast handovers by decreasing the handover latency, E2E delay, and signaling overheads. The illustrated scenarios will help in understanding the impact of existing handover approaches in the next generation wireless networks, especially the upcoming 5G, which includes small cells, UAVs, UEs, and so on. The simulation study shows that scenarios with both UAVs and small cells perform better than scenarios with only small cells. The results in this article show that the proposed SDNbased handover scenarios perform better than the existing 4G-LTE handover for UAVs.
Categorías: research

HetNet: A Flexible Architecture for Heterogeneous Satellite-Terrestrial Networks

Sáb, 12/16/2017 - 04:00
As satellite networks have played an indispensable role in many fields, how to integrate them with terrestrial networks (e.g., the Internet) has attracted significant attention in academia. However, it is challenging to efficiently build such an integrated network, since terrestrial networks are facing a number of serious problems, and since they do not provide good support for heterogeneous network convergence. In this article, we propose a flexible network architecture, HetNet, for efficient integration of heterogeneous satellite-terrestrial networks. Specifically, the HetNet synthesizes Locator/ID split and Information-Centric Networking to establish a general network architecture. In this way, it is able to achieve heterogeneous network convergence, routing scalability alleviation, mobility support, traffic engineering, and efficient content delivery. Moreover, the HetNet can further improve its network elasticity by using the techniques of Software-Defined Networking and Network Functions Virtualization. In addition, to evaluate the HetNet performance, we build a proof-of-concept prototype system and conduct extensive experiments. The results confirm the feasibility of the HetNet and its advantages.
Categorías: research