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EIR: Edge-aware inter-domain routing protocol for the future mobile internet

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 9 November 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 127

Author(s): Shreyasee Mukherjee, Shravan Sriram, Tam Vu, Dipankar Raychaudhuri

This work describes a clean-slate inter-domain routing protocol designed to meet the needs of the future mobile Internet. In particular, we describe the edge-aware inter-domain routing (EIR) protocol which provides new abstractions, such as aggregated-nodes (aNodes) and virtual-links (vLinks) for expressing network topologies and edge network properties necessary to address mobility related routing scenarios which are inadequately supported by the border gateway protocol (BGP) in use today. Specific use-cases addressed by EIR include emerging mobility service scenarios such as multi-homing across WiFi and cellular, multipath routing over several access networks, and anycast access from mobile devices to replicated cloud services. It is shown that EIR can be used to realize efficient routing strategies for the mobility use-cases under consideration, while also providing support for a range of inter-domain routing policies currently associated with BGP. Simulation results for protocol overhead are presented for a global-scale CAIDA topology, leading to an identification of parameters necessary to obtain a good balance between overhead and routing table convergence time. A Click-based proof-of-concept implementation of EIR on the ORBIT testbed is described and used to validate performance and functionality for selected mobility use-cases, including mobile data services with open WiFi access points and mobile platforms such as buses operating in an urban area.





Categorías: research

A CSMA-based MAC protocol for WLANs with automatic synchronization capability to provide hard quality of service guarantees

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 9 November 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 127

Author(s): Yaw-Wen Kuo, Jane-Hwa Huang

The carrier sensing multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol is a widely-adopted MAC protocol in the current wireless networks, but the quality of service (QoS) cannot be guaranteed due to random access. Investigations reveal that the collision avoidance mechanism which relies on the binary exponential backoff scheme is the root cause of QoS issue. Therefore, this paper first proposes a CSMA with automatic synchronization (CSMA/AS) MAC protocol to mitigate the collision problem caused by random access. By CSMA/AS, all the stations can be synchronized and then served in a round-robin fashion without contention collisions. Even if a new station joins, the wireless network can also quickly converge and go back to the synchronized state. The simulation results show that the proposed CSMA/AS protocol can fully mitigate the issues caused by random access, such as the severe contention collisions and large delay variation. In addition, this paper demonstrates how to provide hard QoS guarantees, such as fairness, rate guarantee, and delay guarantee, which cannot be achieved by the existing CSMA-based protocols. Because CSMA/CA does not rely on any additional control message, the implementation complexity of CSMA/AS is similar to that of legacy CSMA/CA protocols.





Categorías: research

Source selection problem in multi-source multi-destination multicasting

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 9 November 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 127

Author(s): Deke Guo, Xiaoqiang Teng, Zhiyao Hu, Junjie Xie, Bangbang Ren

Multicast is designed to jointly deliver content from a single source to a set of destinations; hence, it can efficiently save the bandwidth consumption and reduce the load on the source. In many important applications, the appearance of multiple sources brings new opportunities and challenges to reduce the bandwidth consumption of a multicast transfer. In this paper, we focus on such type of multi-source multicast and construct an efficient routing forest with the minimum cost (MCF). MCF spans each destination by one and only one source, while minimizing the total cost (i.e. the weight sum of all links in one multicast routing) for delivering the same content from the source side to all destinations. Prior approaches for single source multicast do not exploit the opportunities of a collection of sources; hence, they remain inapplicable to the MCF problem. Actually, the MCF problem for a multi-source multicast is proved to be NP-hard. Therefore, we propose two ( 2 + ɛ ) -approximation methods, named P-MCF and E-MCF. We conduct experiments on our SDN testbed together with large-scale simulations under the random SDN network, regular SDN network and scale-free SDN network. All manifest that our MCF approach always occupies fewer network links and incurs less network cost for any multi-source multicast than the traditional Steiner minimum tree (SMT) of any related single source multicast, irrespective of the used network topology and the setting of multicast transfers.





Categorías: research

Timely scheduling algorithm for P2P streaming over MANETs

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 9 November 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 127

Author(s): Chia-Cheng Hu, Chin-Feng Lai, Ji-Gong Hou, Yueh-Min Huang

A segment scheduling algorithm for Peer to Peer (P2P) Video-on-Demand (VoD) streaming services is necessary to a mobile adhoc networks (MANET). In order to maximize the received number of segments; Most of the previous research efforts have focused on a greedy approach to utilize the all available network bandwidth. However, the greedy approach will waste the network bandwidth and buffer capacity of devices/peers in transmitting and storing segments whose playback deadline is far from met. Moreover, the performance of greedy approach decreased due to many inherited limitations of MANET such as peer mobility and peer interactions. In this paper, a distinct approach to address the above problems is adopted by scheduling evenly the segments of the P2P VoD streaming services transmitted into a MANET based on the playback-rate of the services. On the other hand, it schedules the segments from the peers with less bandwidth consumption to the network for further saving the limited bandwidth. Further, it is adaptive to host mobility and peer interaction. Extensive simulation illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. It is shown that the proposed scheme has 10.2% improvement in admission rate, and 7.6% improvement in successful receiving rate over the greedy approach.





Categorías: research

Ensemble network traffic classification: Algorithm comparison and novel ensemble scheme proposal

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 9 November 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 127

Author(s): Santiago Egea Gómez, Belén Carro Martínez, Antonio J. Sánchez-Esguevillas, Luis Hernández Callejo

Network Traffic Classification (NTC) is a key piece for network monitoring, Quality-of-Service management and network security. Machine Learning algorithms have drawn the attention of many researchers during the last few years as a promising solution for network traffic classification. In Machine Learning, ensemble algorithms are classifiers formed by a set of base estimators that cooperate to build more complex models according to given training and classification strategies. Resulting models normally exhibit significant accuracy improvements compared to single estimators, but also extra time cost, which may obstruct the application of these methods to online NTC. This paper studies and compares the performance of seven popular ensemble algorithms based on Decision Trees, focusing on model accuracy, byte accuracy, and latency to determine whether ensemble learning can be properly applied to this modeling task. We show that some of the studied algorithms overcome single Decision Tree in terms of model accuracy and byte accuracy. However, the notable latency increase hinders the application of these methods in real time contexts. Additionally, we introduce a novel ensemble classifier that exploits the imbalanced populations presented in traffic networks datasets to achieve faster classifications. The experimental results show that our scheme retains the accuracy improvements of ensemble methods but with low latency punishment, enhancing the prospect of ensembles methods for online network traffic classification.





Categorías: research

A scalable packet-switch architecture based on OQ NoCs for data center networks

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 9 November 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 127

Author(s): Fadoua Hassen, Lotfi Mhamdi

Data Center switches need guarantee high throughput, resiliency and scalability for large-scale networks with constantly floating requirements. Multistage packet switches have been a pervasive solution to implement high-capacity Data Center Networks (DCNs) switches and routers. Yet, classical multistage switching architectures with their Space-Memory variants have shown limited performance. Most proposals prove either too complex to implement or not cost effective. In this paper, we present a highly scalable packet-switch for the DCN environment, in which we exploit the Network-on-Chip (NoC) design paradigm to replace the single-hop crossbars with multi-hop Switching Elements (SEs). In particular, we describe a three-stage switch with Output-Queued Unidirectional NoCs (OQ-UDN) in the central stage of the Clos-network. The design has several advantages over conventional multistage switches. First, it uses a simple Round-Robin (RR) packet dispatching scheme and avoids the need for complex and costly input modules. Besides, it offers better load balancing, a pipelined scheduling and more path-diversity. We assess the performance of the switch in terms of throughput, end-to-end latency and blocking probability using Markov chain analysis, and we propose an analytical model that integrates the various design parameters. Through extensive simulations, we show that the switching architecture achieves high performance under different types of traffic, and that both the analytical and experimental results correlate over wide range of evaluation settings.





Categorías: research

Performance modeling and analysis of void-handling methodologies in underwater wireless sensor networks

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Rodolfo W.L. Coutinho, Azzedine Boukerche, Luiz F.M. Vieira, Antonio A.F. Loureiro

In this paper, we devise an analytical framework for the performance evaluation of communication void-handling algorithms designed for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). Geographic and opportunistic routing (GOR) have been shown efficient for multi-hop data delivery in UWSNs. However, geo-routing suffers from a serious drawback known as communication void region. The communication void region problem occurs when a source node does not have a neighbor node in closer proximity to the destination that can continue forwarding the packet. Whenever a data packet reaches a node in a void region, the data packet should be re-routed from a void-handling procedure or discarded. In this paper, we model the three main methodologies that have been used for the design of void-handling algorithms for geographic and opportunistic routing protocols in UWSNs. Our proposed analytical framework considers the characteristics of underwater sensor networks, network density and traffic load, underwater environment and acoustic channel, as well as the characteristics of the power control, bypassing void region and mobility assisted void-handling paradigms. The devised analytical framework is aimed to fill the gap in the literature of analytical tools that allow the performance evaluation of the trade-offs of each paradigm along different scenarios of UWSNs. The proposed model provides insights for the further design of void-handling algorithms in different underwater application and sensor network configurations. Numerical results show that the widely used bypassing void region approach is not effectively for moderate- and high-density UWSN scenarios. Conversely, topology control-based approaches (power control and mobility-assisted) are preferable as they create additional links. However, the use of void-handling procedures increased the network energy consumption, which made each paradigm unsuitable for specific scenarios revealed by the proposed modeling.





Categorías: research

An energy and throughput efficient distributed cooperative MAC protocol for multihop wireless networks

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): HR Shamna, Jacob Lillykutty

Potential benefits of cooperation in wireless networks include improved throughput and reliability, reduced energy consumption and data transfer delay, and extended network coverage and lifetime. The existing works on using cooperative communication at the MAC layer focus on using it either for improving network performance in terms of throughput, delay, spectral efficiency, etc.; or for improving network lifetime and energy efficiency of the nodes. In this paper, we consider enhancing both the network lifetime and throughput by using cooperative communication at the MAC layer. We formulate optimization problems with this objective for both single hop and multi hop networks. The solutions show that network lifetime and throughput can be significantly improved by using cooperative communications to forward packets at the MAC layer. We then propose a distributed cross-layer cooperative MAC protocol for a multi-hop network environment that can improve the network lifetime and energy efficiency while not degrading the network throughput and end-to-end delay. The analytical and simulation results show that the proposed protocol can improve the performance of the network in terms of network lifetime, throughput, end-to-end delay, and energy efficiency.





Categorías: research

Network coding based adaptive CSMA for network utility maximization

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Tao Wang, Baoxian Zhang, Zheng Yao, Hussein T. Mouftah

It is well known that network coding can improve the capacity of wireless networks efficiently while adaptive CSMA-based link scheduling can efficiently allocate channel resources in a fully distributed manner in such networks. By combining the advantages of these two mechanisms, in this paper, we are aimed at achieving network utility maximization in a fully distributed manner when network coding is applied. For this purpose, we first model the network under study by considering transmission conflict relationship in the network. Then, by treating coding combinations as scheduling units for transmissions at the MAC layer, we deduce the weighted network capacity based on the network-coding-based adaptive CSMA link scheduling and further analyze its features. This way of link scheduling also eases the queue load estimation when network coding opportunity is present, which is a prerequisite for CSMA based link scheduling. We accordingly propose a distributed network-coding-based adaptive CSMA algorithm, which assigns the mean backoff time of a coded packet transmission for medium access based on its coding gain. We prove the convergence property of the proposed algorithm and its optimality in network utility maximization when coding combinations/patterns applicable at nodes in the network are known. Simulation results validate our analytical results.





Categorías: research

Dynamic joint processing: Achieving high spectral efficiency in uplink 5G cellular networks

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Abolfazl Hajisami, Dario Pompili

Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) processing is a promising method to mitigate the intra-cluster interference and improve the average Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR). Such method, however, cannot mitigate the inter-cluster interference and only changes the boundaries of interference from cell to cluster. On the other hand, since clusters in the traditional CoMP are static and all the spectrum is used in each cluster, we cannot avoid cluster-edge MSs. In this article, the problems of the current CoMP method are addressed and the reasons why clustering in CoMP should be studied jointly with spectrum allocation are discussed. Then, in the context of Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN), an innovative uplink solution—called Dynamic Joint Processing (DJP)—is proposed to mitigate both intra- and inter-cluster interference and to address the fluctuation in capacity demand. Two coexisting clustering approaches are presented based on the level of mobility of MSs: 1) in the low-mobility approach, virtual clusters are formed for each subband and their size is dynamically changed based on the position of the MSs; 2) in the high-mobility approach, a different set of subbands are assigned to different neighboring hybrid cells and the boundaries of frequency bands are dynamically optimized so to address the unanticipated change in capacity demand. Monte Carlo simulations confirm the validity of our statements and show the potential of our solution towards next-generation green communications.





Categorías: research

Reliable and energy efficient wireless sensor network design via conditional multi-copying for multiple central nodes

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Merve Ekmen, Ayşegül Altın-Kayhan

Design of reliable wireless sensor networks considering energy efficiency is of utmost importance given their specific application domains and technical properties. As a contribution to the vast literature on resilient and fault tolerant network design, this paper offers a novel energy efficient conditional multi-copy and multi-path routing strategy. The motivation is to use limited energy of sensors as efficiently as possible and to improve network reliability and security via restricted redundant data generation. Namely, rather than all only the data passing through some central nodes are duplicated as a precaution against their malfunctioning. A limited number of nodes with higher data transmission allowance are determined as central at the design stage considering lifetime maximization objective. Consequently, 0–1 mixed integer programming models of two variants of the proposed strategy are presented in order to determine optimal routing. Moreover, several valid inequalities so as to improve solution times with commercial solvers and an efficient heuristic method for finding good solutions for large instances in reasonable times are proposed. Extensive test results show that simple restricted multi-copy strategies where every sensor duplicates its data are improved since the proposed strategies provide comparable levels of network reliability and yet extend network lifetime significantly.





Categorías: research

Maximizing SDN control resource utilization via switch migration

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Xing Ye, Guozhen Cheng, Xingguo Luo

Software-Defined Networking is challenged by load imbalance of distributed control plane that is statically mapped to data plane. In this article, we design a scalable control mechanism via switch migration locally to maximize control resource utilization, and we define this problem as Switch Migration Problem (SMP). First, due to the various demands on controller CPU, bandwidth and memory for different switch, we provide a resource consuming model for SDN that takes the switches as the resource consumers and controllers as the resource providers. Then SMP is reduced to a network utilization maximization problem which is a typical combinational problem. Second, we introduce a synthesizing distributed algorithm to solve SMP — Distributed Hopping Algorithm (DHA), to disperse the calculations among the controllers involved. Finally, we implement a proof-of-concept for DHA based on Beacon controller, called DHA-CON, and the results are corroborated by several numerical simulations.





Categorías: research

Privacy as a proxy for Green Web browsing: Methodology and experimentation

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Salvatore d’Ambrosio, Salvatore de Pasquale, Gerardo Iannone, Delfina Malandrino, Alberto Negro, Giovanni Patimo, Vittorio Scarano, Raffaele Spinelli, Rocco Zaccagnino

Nowadays, users’ privacy on the Internet is highly at risk, due to the monetization by advertising companies that support many of the so-called “free” services such as searching or social networking. In fact, several mechanisms are used to monitor users and build detailed profiles to tailor behavioral advertising. Given the increasing use of mobile devices and the increasing revenues from behavioral advertising, large advertising companies are present in this market as well. The increasing use of mobile devices for interacting with the Web and using mobile applications has been also drawing attention to their energy consumption. Several studies have addressed this issue from different point of views, i.e., hardware, software, as well as by analyzing the energy drained by different mobile applications. Our goal in this work is to measure the effectiveness of a methodology that exploits a hardware-based instrumentation to study whether privacy-preserving mechanisms are also able to efficiently reduce communication and computation overhead and, thus, save the battery life of mobile phones with the overall aim of a more sustainable Internet.





Categorías: research

On sensor selection in linked information networks

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Charu C. Aggarwal, Amotz Bar-Noy, Simon Shamoun

Sensor networks are often redundant by design in order to achieve reliability in information processing. In many cases, the relationships between the different sensors are known a-priori, and can be represented as virtual linkages among the different sensors. These virtual linkages correspond to an information network of sensors, which provides useful external input to the problem of sensor selection. In this paper, we propose the unique approach of using external linkage information in order to improve the efficiency of very large scale sensor selection. We design efficient theoretical models, including a greedy approximation algorithm and an integer programming formulation for sensor selection. Our greedy selection algorithm provides an approximation bound of 1 − 1 / e , where e is the base of the natural logarithm. We show that our approach is much more effective than baseline sampling strategies. We present experimental results that illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach.





Categorías: research

A learning algorithm for rate selection in real-time wireless LANs

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Michele Luvisotto, Federico Tramarin, Stefano Vitturi

To achieve a real–time behavior in wireless communication systems, the multi–rate support (MRS) provided by the IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN standard may reveal particularly advantageous. Unfortunately, the most widespread rate adaptation algorithms designed for general purpose applications proved to be unsuitable for the challenging real–time scenario. This has led to the definition of purposely designed algorithms such as RSIN, a rate adaptation technique based on the SNR measurement, which showed very good performance in terms of timeliness and reliability. The goal of this paper is to propose an improvement of RSIN that extends its applicability to a wider range of applications. To this aim, we introduce RSIN–E, an enhanced version of RSIN based on an estimation of the SNR obtained through a learning algorithm. In detail, this paper first provides an exhaustive description of both the proposed learning algorithm and the relevant estimation procedure. Then it presents an extensive performance assessment of RSIN–E  carried out via both experimental sessions and simulations. The obtained results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique and highlight that its performance figures are comparable with those of RSIN, and significantly better than those of Minstrel, a widespread rate adaptation algorithm adopted by most general purpose applications.





Categorías: research

Lightweight On-demand Ad hoc Distance-vector Routing - Next Generation (LOADng): Protocol, extension, and applicability

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Thomas Clausen, Jiazi Yi, Ulrich Herberg

This paper studies the routing protocol “Lightweight On-demand Ad hoc Distance-vector Routing Protocol – Next Generation (LOADng)”, designed to enable efficient, scalable and secure routing in low power and lossy networks. As a reactive protocol, it does not maintain a routing table for all destinations in the network, but initiates a route discovery to a destination only when there is data to be sent to that destination to reduce routing overhead and memory consumption. Designed with a modular approach, LOADng can be extended with additional components for adapting the protocol to different topologies, traffic, and data-link layer characteristics. This paper studies several such additional components for extending LOADng: support for smart route requests and expanding ring search, an extension permitting maintaining collection trees, a fast rerouting extension. All those extensions are examined from the aspects of specification, interoperability with other mechanisms, security vulnerabilities, performance and applicability. A general framework is also proposed to secure the routing protocol.





Categorías: research

A task scheduling algorithm based on Q-learning and shared value function for WSNs

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Zhenchun Wei, Yan Zhang, Xiangwei Xu, Lei Shi, Lin Feng

In dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), each sensor node should be allowed to schedule tasks by itself based on current environmental changes. Task scheduling on each sensor node should be done online towards balancing the tradeoff between resources utilization and application performance. In order to solve the problem of frequent exchange of cooperative information in existing cooperative learning algorithms, a task scheduling algorithm based on Q-learning and shared value function for WSNs, QS is proposed. Specifically, the task model for target monitoring applications and the cooperative Q-learning model are both established, and some basic elements of reinforcement learning including the delayed rewards and the state space are also defined. Moreover, according to the characteristic of the value of the function change, QS designs the sending constraint and the expired constraint of state value to reduce the switching frequency of cooperative information while guaranteeing the cooperative learning effect. Experimental results on NS3 show that QS can perform task scheduling dynamically according to current environmental changes; compared with other cooperative learning algorithms, QS achieves better application performance with achievable energy consumption and also makes each sensor node complete its functionality job normally.





Categorías: research

DT-RPL: Diverse bidirectional traffic delivery through RPL routing protocol in low power and lossy networks

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Hyung-Sin Kim, Hosoo Cho, Hongchan Kim, Saewoong Bahk

As part of Internet of Things, low-power lossy network (LLN) applications are being diversified, which requires LLNs to support diverse traffic patterns. In this paper, we address performance issues of IPv6 routing protocol for LLNs (RPL) when delivering various traffic patterns. Specifically, we show that RPL was designed to mainly support upward traffic, and thus cannot construct reliable multi-hop routes for downward traffic-centric applications. To solve the problem effectively, we provide an improved RPL implementation, termed DT-RPL, which fast updates wireless link quality through both upward and downward traffic to support Diverse Traffic patterns. It is enabled to update routes in dynamic link environments regardless of traffic patterns. Our results in a multi-hop testbed over IEEE 802.15.4 links reveal that our scheme significantly improves RPL’s performance in various traffic scenarios, in terms of packet delivery ratio, control overhead and radio energy consumption.





Categorías: research

ICE: A memory-efficient BGP route collecting engine

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Enrico Gregori, Barbara Guidi, Alessandro Improta, Luca Sani

Since their deployment, BGP route collectors have played a fundamental role in investigating and detecting routing accidents and hijack attempts. However, an increasing number of detection techniques designed for real-time environments show that the lack of interactivity of route collectors represents a limitation to their efficacy, together with the small amount of sources from which data is collected. Both issues stem from the current implementation of route collectors, which relies on single-threaded and general-purpose routing suites to establish BGP sessions and collect data. With this implementation any interactive operation impacts on the collection process and the number of sessions that can be established is limited by memory usage, which is not optimized for route collecting purposes. In this paper we present ICE, a multi-threaded and memory-efficient BGP collecting engine which allows route collectors to overcome the above mentioned limitations. The multi-threaded environment allows us to solve the lack of interactiveness, allowing concurrent read/write operations. Memory efficiency has been obtained thanks to the design of a variant of the Liv-Zempel compression algorithms specifically tailored to operate within a BGP real-time collecting environment. The proposed technique exploits the high degree of repetitiveness characterizing BGP data and reduces the ICE memory usage by as much as 30%.





Categorías: research

Area formation and content assignment for LTE broadcasting

Vie, 08/18/2017 - 04:59
Publication date: 24 October 2017
Source:Computer Networks, Volume 126

Author(s): Claudio Casetti, Carla-Fabiana Chiasserini, Francesco Malandrino, Carlo Borgiattino

Broadcasting and multicasting services in LTE networks are shaping up to be an effective way to provide popular content. A key requirement is that cells are aggregated into areas where a tight time synchronization among transmissions is enforced, so as to broadcast the same radio resources. Our paper addresses a facet of LTE broadcasting that has so far received little attention: the creation of broadcasting areas and the assignment of content to them in order to efficiently exploit radio resources and satisfy user requests. Our original clustering approach, named Single-Content Fusion, achieves these goals by initially aggregating cells into single-content areas and maximizing cell similarity in content interests. Aggregated areas are then merged into multiple-content areas by virtue of similar spatial coverage. We show the validity of our solution pointing out the advantages it provides in comparison to other approaches. We also discuss the impact of various system factors (e.g., number of served users, broadcast data rate, area size) and the scalability of our proposal in large, realistic scenarios with both static and time-varying user interest.





Categorías: research